Concepts and Definitions
The DARE (Dialogue about Radicalisation and Equality) project will run for four years. Funded under the EU Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, it will investigate young people’s encounters with messages and agents of radicalisation, how they receive and respond to those calls, and how they make choices about the paths they take. These are some of the concepts and brief definitions we are using in the research and outreach activities.
The process by which individuals or groups come to embrace attitudes, or engage in actions, that support violence in the pursuit of extremist causes.
A type of radicalisation process in which the radicalising individual is the instigator of the process rather than being recruited by an organisation or being one member of a group which collectively radicalises.
The process of not becoming involved in violent extremism (in the presence of similar structural factors, contextual milieus and individual socio-demographic characteristics as those who do).
The psychological process through which an individual abandons their extremist ideology and becomes a decreased threat for re-engaging in terrorism.
The active support for fundamental – system-changing – political change.
Beliefs and behaviours that seek a conformist, homogenous society based on ideological principles achieved by force.
The way in which one form of extremism can feed off and amplify other forms of extremism.
The interaction between Islam and politics, as manifested in the discursive and actual positions on ideology and governance in Muslim states and societies.
Often used as a synonym for violent expressions of Islamism such as Jihadism.
Active opposition to what its proponents refer to as ‘radical Islam’ or the ‘Islamification’ of western societies but often includes a more general antipathy towards Islam or all Muslims.
A political ideology characterised by opposition to democracy and which frequently espouse biological racism and anti-Semitism.
The objectively unequal, or subjectively perceived, unjust distribution of resources, power or opportunities (such asSelf- income, health, education, employment, political representation, legal and civil rights).
The people, the physical and the social conditions and events in which someone acts or lives. A milieu of radicalisation is a space where radical/extreme messages are encountered – online or offline.
Individual pathways shaped by structural, group and individual factors that may lead individuals towards extremist attitudes or behaviours but also to non-radicalisation and de-radicalisation.
PREVENTING VIOLENT EXTREMISM (pve) and countering violent extremism (cve)
Short hand umbrella terms for a range of non-coercive attempts to reduce involvement in terrorism.
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 725349